Text fields in Postgres are case sensitive. This is a problem when storing emails because [email protected] and [email protected] are not equal.

If you do any lookups by email address, you have a few options.

  1. always use downcase on write
  2. use a functional index, lower(email)
  3. use citext

Here are my experiences with each of them.

Option 1: Use downcase (not ideal)

You could email.downcase each time you store an email or do a lookup. This works well, but you (+ your entire team) will have to always remember to do this.

Option 2: Use a functional index, lower(email) - (also, not ideal)

The 2nd solution is to create a functional index with lower(email) and forever have to query ActiveRecord like this: User.where("lower(email) = ?, email"). This is my least favorite solution. It seems like it would work really well. But in practice can cause a lot of problems when combined with ActiveRecord. You can no longer use where, find_by, or create in the ways you expect to.

For example: User.create(attributes) is very common in a Rails app. If you require email addresses to be unique (which you probably do). Rails will run a query first to see if a record exists.

SELECT 1 as ONE FROM users WHERE email = '[email protected]' LIMIT 1;

See the problem in that query? Our index is on lower(email). This query misses the index and you’re now doing a full table scan each time a user is created.

Other seemingly innocent ActiveRecord queries will also miss your index. Here’s a common one: User.find_by(email: '[email protected]').

The problem with lower is similar to using downcase, you & your entire team have to remember to always use lower.

Option 3: Use Citext!

Here’s my favorite solution (this is what we use at Product Hunt).

The citext module provides a case-insensitive character string type, citext. Essentially, it internally calls lower when comparing values. Otherwise, it behaves almost exactly like text. – Postgres Docs

Citext makes your email column case-insensitive.

If you want to change an existing column to Citext. Here’s an example Rails migration.

# Example Rails migration
class ChangeEmailToCitext < ActiveRecord::Migration
  def change

    change_column :users, :email, :citext

    ## **Warning!** changing a columns datatype locks the table. This can cause
    ## downtime in production (your app will not be able to write while the change is
    ## being made). Read: https://www.braintreepayments.com/blog/safe-operations-for-high-volume-postgresql

    ## If locking the table is not an option for you, **do not** use this migration. You'll
    ## instead need to create a new citext column, change your code to write to both, backfill the new
    ## column and then switch reads/writes to the new column.

Remember to add an index to this column.

class AddIndexToUsersEmail < ActiveRecord::Migration

  def change
    add_index :users, :email, unique: true, algorithm: :concurrently

I hope you find this helpful! If you’ve come across any better solutions, or have ways to improve this one, please comment below.